Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Escherichia coli Isolates from Small Scale Dairy Cattle in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania


In Tanzania, information on antimicrobial resistance in small-scale dairy cattle is scarce. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the different levels and pattern of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), in 121 Escherichia coli isolated from rectal swab of 201 apparently healthy small-scale dairy cattle in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Isolation and identification of E. coli were carried out using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar (Merck), according to the recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Resistance was tested against ampicillin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. Resistance to almost all antimicrobial agents was observed. The agents to which resistance was demonstrated most frequently were ampicillin (96.7%), cefotaxime (95.0%), tetracycline (50.4%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (42.1%) and nalidixic acid (33.1%). In this case, 20 extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing E. coli were identified. 74.4% (90/121) of the isolates were Multidrug resistant (MDR), ranging from a combination of three to 8 different classes. The most frequently observed phenotypes were AMP-SXT-CTX with a prevalence of 12.4%, followed by the combination AMP-CTX with 10.7% and TE-AMP-CTX and NA + TE + AMP + CTX with 8.3% each. The high prevalence and wide range of AMR calls for prudent antimicrobial use.

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