EmanueleNicastriPhD, MDGaryKobingerPhD, MDFrancescoVairoMDChiaraMontaldoMDLeonard E.G.MboeraPhD, BVMRashidAnsunamaPhDAlimuddinZumlaMBChB, MSc, PhD, MD, FRCP(Lond), FRCP(Edin), FRCPath(UK), FAASGiuseppeIppolitoMD, FRCP
- National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Lazzaro Spallanzani, IRCCS, Via Portuense, 292, Rome 00149, Italy
- Centre de Recherche en Infectiologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Université Laval, 2705, Boulevard Laurier, RC-709, Québec, Québec G1V 4G2, Canada
- SACIDS Foundation for One Health, Sokoine University of Agriculture, PO Box 3297, Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, Tanzania
- Mercy Hospital Research Laboratory, School of Community Health Sciences, Njala University, Bo Campus, Kulanda Town, Bo, Sierra Leone
- Center for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, Royal Free Campus 2nd Floor, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, UK
Ebola Ebola virus diseases Ebola hemorrhagic fever Epidemiology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Vaccines KEY POINTS Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a severe zoonotic disease caused by the Ebola virus (EBOV), first discovered in 1976 near the Ebola River in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Bats are the most likely host reservoir of EBOV. Humans acquire infection through direct or indirect contact with blood, body fluids, and tissues. Human-to-human transmission of EBOV occurs via direct contact with an infected person. Sexual transmission has been described. Initial symptoms are nonspecific often misdiagnosed as influenza or malaria. Suspicion of EVD should prompt isolation and infection control measures. Outbreak control requires a multidisciplinary team effort applying case management, infection prevention and control practices, surveillance and contact tracing, good laboratory service, safe and dignified burials, social and community mobilization.
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