Exposure to Salinity and Light Spectra Regulates Glucosinolates, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Capacity of Brassica carinata L. Microgreens

Authours:  Sylvia Maina, Da Hye Ryu, Jwa Yeong Cho, Da Seul Jung, Jai-Eok Park, Chu Won Nho, Gaymary Bakari, Gerald Misinzo, Je Hyeong Jung, Seung-Hoon Yang and Ho-Youn Kim

The effect of salt treatment on Brassica carinata (BC) microgreens grown under different light wavelengths on glucosinolates (GLs) and phenolic compounds were evaluated. Quantifiable GLs were identified using ultra-high performance-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry. Extracts’ ability to activate antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) was evaluated on human colorectal carcinoma cells (HCT116). Furthermore, BC compounds’ ability to activate expression of nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2 related factor (Nrf2) and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) proteins was examined using specific antibodies on HCT116 cells. Sinigrin (SIN) was the abundant GLs of the six compounds identified and its content together with total aliphatic GLs increased in saline conditions. Fluorescent (FL) and blue plus red (B1R1) lights were identified as stable cultivation conditions for microgreens, promoting biomass and glucobrassicin contents, whereas other identified individual and total indole GLs behaved differently in saline and non-saline environments. Blue light-emitting diodes and FL light in saline treatments mostly enhanced SIN, phenolics and antioxidant activities. The increased SOD and CAT activities render the BC microgreens suitable for lowering oxidative stress. Additionally, activation of Nrf2, and HO-1 protein expression by the GLs rich extracts, demonstrate their potential to treat and prevent oxidative stress and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, effective salt treatments and light exposure to BC microgreens present an opportunity for targeted regulation of growth and accumulation of bioactive metabolites.
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