Tanzania launched its first National Action Plan (NAP) on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in 2017 to reduce the burden of AMR in the country and contribute to the global response. We aimed to analyze the implementation of the NAP on AMR in Tanzania using the governance framework. In-depth interviews were conducted with human and animal health practitioners and national-level policy actors. We adapted Chua’s AMR governance framework to analyze the development and implementation of the NAP in Tanzania. Implementation of the NAP has realized several achievements, including: (i) the establishment of a functioning Multi-Sectoral Coordinating Committee for coordinating the implementation of AMR activities; (ii) existence of governance structure; (iii) establishment of human and animal surveillance sites; (iv) creation of AMR awareness in the community and (v) availability of guidelines at the health facility level to ensure AMR stewardship. However, some dimensions of the governance areas, including reporting and feedback mechanisms, accountability, transparency and sustainability of AMR plans, are not effectively implemented. Addressing these challenges should involve strengthening the collaboration of the different sectors involved at different NAP implementation levels by careful planning and coordination, and provision of adequate resources to ensure sustainability.