Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding antimicrobial use and resistance among communities of Ilala, Kilosa and Kibaha districts of Tanzania

Author(s): Private: Calvin Sindato , Private: Dr. Leonard Mboera , Private: Dr. Zablon Bugwesa

Gasto Frumence, Sharadhuli Kimera, Taane G. Clark, Helena Legido‑Quigley, Stephen E. Mshana


Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) represents one of the biggest threats to health globally. This crosssectional study determined knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding antimicrobial use (AMU) and AMR among communities of Ilala, Kilosa and Kibaha in Tanzania.

Method: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and KAP data through face-to-face interviews. Responses related to the triad of KAP were assigned scores that were aggregated for each participant. Linear regression analysis was conducted to determine predictors of KAP scores.

Results: The study enrolled 828 participants from the three districts. A total of 816 (98.6%) were aware of antimicrobials, and 808 (99%, n = 816) reported to have used them. Antimicrobials were mainly used to treat cough (68.0%), urinary tract infections (53.4%), diarrhoea (48.5%) and wounds (45.2%). The most frequent sources of antimicrobials

were health facility (65.0%, n = 820) and pharmacies/basic drug shops (53.7%). The median AMU knowledge score was 5 (IQR = 4, 7) and that of AMR was 26 (IQR=23, 29). The median AMU attitudes score was 32 (IQR: 29, 35) and that of AMR was 19 (IQR=17, 22). The median AMU practice score was 3 (IQR: 3, 3). The KAP scores were significantly influenced by increased participant’s age (βadj=0.10; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.15) and level of education, being lower among those with primary education (βadj=5.32; 95% CI: 3.27, 7.37) and highest among those with college/university education (βadj=9.85; 95% CI: 6.04, 13.67).

Conclusion: The study documented a moderate level of KAP regarding AMU and AMR in the study districts. The participant’s age and level of education were significantly associated with participant’s KAP scores. The observed inadequate knowledge, inappropriate attitude, and practices of AMU and AMR should be considered as alarming problems that require immediate actions including policy formulation and planning of community-based mitigation measures.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Use, Resistance, Community, Knowledge, Attitude, Practices, Tanzania


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