Prevalence of gram negative bacteria causing community acquired pneumonia among adults in Mwanza City, Tanzania

Authors: Peter KishimboNyambura Moremi SogoneFredrick Kalokola and Stephen E. Mshana




Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults is still a common and serious illness in the sub-Saharan Africa. Identification of the pathogens is crucial in the management of CAP. This study was done to determine the common bacterial pathogens, treatment outcomes and associated factors for microbiological confirmed CAP among adults attending the Bugando Medical Centre and Sekou Toure hospital in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania.


This was a hospital based cross sectional study involving patients with community acquired pneumonia attending Bugando Medical Centre and Sekou Toure regional Hospital. Demographic and other data were collected using standardized data collection tool. Sputum culture was done followed by identification of the isolates and antibiotics susceptibility testing.


A total of 353 patients were enrolled in the study. Out of 353 sputum samples, 265(75%) were of good quality. Of 353 non-repetitive sputum cultures, 72/353 (20.4, 95% CI: 16.2–24.6) were positive for the bacterial pathogens with five patients having more than one pathogen. Good quality sputa had significantly higher yield of pathogenic bacteria than poor quality sputa (26.1% vs.3.4%, P = 0.001). The majority 64 (83.1%) of the isolates were gram negative bacteria. Common bacteria isolated were Klebsiella pneumoniae 23/77(29.9%), Streptococcus pyogenes 10/77 (13.0%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 9/77 (11.7%) and Escherichia coli 7/77 (9.1%). Of 23 K. pneumoniae isolates, 20/23 (87.0%) were resistant to ceftriaxone. Resistance to ceftriaxone was found to be associated with prolongation of CAP symptoms (p = 0.009).


Gram negative bacteria resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and ceftriaxone were most frequently isolated bacteria among adults’ patients with CAP attending BMC and Sekou Toure hospital. Routine sputum culture should be performed to guide appropriate treatment of CAP among adults in developing countries.


Share on FacebookTweet about this on TwitterShare on LinkedInShare on Google+Email this to someone